THERE is one passage more than any other which is I appealed to by those who believe in universal redemption, and which at first sight appears to teach that Christ died for the whole human race. We have therefore decided to give it a detailed examination and exposition.
“And He is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world” (1 John 2:2). This is the passage which, apparently, most favors the Arminian view of the Atonement, yet if it be considered attentively it will be seen that it does so only in appearance, and not in reality. Below we offer a number of conclusive proofs to show that this verse does not teach that Christ has propitiated God on behalf of all the sins of all men.
In the first place, the fact that this verse opens with “and” necessarily links it with what has gone before. We, therefore, give a literal word for word translation of I John 2 :1 from Bagster’s Interlinear: “Little children my, these things I write to you, that ye may not sin; and if any one should sin, a Paraclete we have with the Father, Jesus Christ (the) righteous”. It will thus be seen that the apostle John is here writing to and about the saints of God. His immediate purpose was two-fold: first, to communicate a message that would keep God’s children from sinning; second, to supply comfort and assurance to those who might sin, and, in consequence, be cast down and fearful that the issue would prove fatal. He, therefore, makes known to them the provision which God has made for just such an emergency. This we find at the end of verse 1 and throughout verse 2. The ground of comfort is twofold: let the downcast and repentant believer (1 John 1:9) be assured that, first, he has an “Advocate with the Father“; second, that this Advocate is “the propitiation for our sins” Now believers only may take comfort from this, for they alone have an “Advocate“, for them alone is Christ the propitiation, as is proven by linking the Propitiation (“and”) with “the Advocate”!
In the second place, if other passages in the New Testament which speak of “propitiation,” he compared with 1 John 2:2, it will be found that it is strictly limited in its scope. For example, in Romans 3 :25 we read that God set forth Christ “a propitiation through faith in His blood“. If Christ is a propitiation “through faith”, then He is not a “propitiation” to those who have no faith! Again, in Hebrews 2:17 we read, “To make propitiation for the sins of the people.” (Heb. 2:17, R. V.)
In the third place, who are meant when John says, “He is the propitiation for our sins“? We answer, Jewish believers. And a part of the proof on which we base this assertion we now submit to the careful attention of the reader.
In Galatians 2:9 we are told that John, together with James and Cephas, were apostles “unto the circumcision” (i.e. Israel). In keeping with this, the Epistle of James is addressed to “the twelve tribes, which are scattered abroad” (1:1). So, the first Epistle of Peter is addressed to “the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion” (1 Pet. 1:1, R. V.). And John also is writing to saved Israelites, but for saved Jews and saved Gentiles.
Some of the evidences that John is writing to saved Jews are as follows. (a) In the opening verse he says of Christ, “Which we have seen with our eyes . . . . and our hands have handled“. How impossible it would have been for the Apostle Paul to have commenced any of his epistles to Gentile saints with such language!
(b) “Brethren, I write no new commandment unto you, but an old commandment which ye had from the beginning” (1 John 2:7). The “beginning” here referred to is the beginning of the public manifestation of Christ-in proof compare 1:1 ; 2:13, etc. Now these believers the apostle tells us, had the “old commandment” from the beginning. This was true of Jewish believers, but it was not true of Gentile believers.
(c) “I write unto you, fathers, because ye have known Him from the beginning” (2:13). Here, again, it is evident that it is Jewish believers that are in view.
(d) “Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that Antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time. They went out from us, but they were not of us” (2:18, 19).
These brethren to whom John wrote had “heard” from Christ Himself that Antichrist should come (see Matthew 24). The “many antichrists” whom John declares “went out from us” were all Jews, for during the first century none but a Jew posed as the Messiah. Therefore, when John says “He is the propitiation for our sins” he can only mean for the sins of Jewish believers.*
In the fourth place, when John added, “And not for ours only, but also for the whole world”, he signified that Christ was the propitiation for the sins of Gentile believers too, for, as previously shown, “the world” is a term contrasted from Israel. This interpretation is unequivocally established by a careful comparison of 1 John 2:2 with John 11:51, 52, which is a strictly parallel passage: “And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation; And not for that nation only, but that also He should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad“. Here Caiaphas, under inspiration, made known for whom Jesus should “die“. Notice now the correspondency of his prophecy with this declaration of John’s:
“He is the propitiation for our (believing Israelites) sins.“
“He prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation.“
“And not for ours only.” “And not for that nation only.“
“But also for the whole world“-That is, Gentile believers scattered throughout the earth.
“He should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.“
In the fifth place, the above interpretation is confirmed by the fact that no other is consistent or intelligible. If the “whole world” signifies the whole human race, then the first clause and the “also” in the second clause are absolutely meaningless. If Christ is the propitiation for every-body, it would be idle tautology to say, first, “He is the propitiation for our sins and also for everybody“. There could be no “also” if He is the propitiation for the entire human family. Had the apostle meant to affirm that Christ is a universal propitiation he had omitted the first clause of verse 2, and simply said, “He is the propitiation for the sins of the whole world.” Confirmatory of “not for ours (Jewish believers) only, but also for the whole world“-Gentile believers, too; compare John 10:16; 17:20.
In the sixth place, our definition of “the whole world” is in perfect accord with other passages in the New Testament. For example: “Whereof ye heard before in the word of the truth of the Gospel; which is come unto you, as it is in all the world” (Col. 1:5,6). Does “all the world” here mean, absolutely and unqualifiedly, all mankind? Had all the human family heard the Gospel? No; the apostle’s obvious meaning is that, the Gospel, instead of being confined to the land of Judea, had gone abroad, without restraint, into Gentile lands. So in Romans 1:8: “First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world”. The apostle is here referring to the faith of these Roman saints being spoken of in a way of commendation. But certainly all mankind did not so speak of their faith! It was the whole world of believers that he was referring to! In Revelation 12:9 we read of Satan “which deceiveth the whole world”. But again this expression cannot be understood as a universal one, for Matthew 24 :24 tells us that Satan does not and cannot “deceive” God’s elect. Here it is “the whole world” of unbelievers.
In the seventh place, to insist that “the whole world” in 1 John 2:2 signifies the entire human race is to undermine the very foundations of our faith. If Christ is the propitiation for those that are lost equally as much as for those that are saved, then what assurance have we that believers too may not be lost? If Christ is the propitiation for those now in hell, what guarantee have I that I may not end in hell? The blood-shedding of the incarnate Son of God is the only thing which can keep any one out of hell, and if many for whom that precious blood made propitiation are now in the awful place of the damned, then may not that blood prove inefficacious for me! Away with such a God-dishonoring thought.
However men may quibble and wrest the Scriptures, one thing is certain: The Atonement is no failure. God will not allow that precious and costly sacrifice to fail in accomplishing, completely, that which it was designed to effect. Not a drop of that holy blood was shed in vain. In the last great Day there shall stand forth no disappointed and defeated Saviour, but One who “shall see of the travail of His soul and be satisfied” (Isa. 53:11). These are not our words, but the infallible assertion of Him who declares, “My counsel shall stand, and I will do all My pleasure” (Isa. 64:10). Upon this impregnable rock we take our stand. Let others rest on the sands of human speculation and twentieth-century theorizing if they wish. That is their business. But to God they will yet have to render an account. For our part we had rather be railed at as a narrow-minded, out-of-date, hyper-Calvinist, than be found repudiating God’s truth by reducing the Divinely-efficacious atonement to a mere fiction.
* It is true that many things in John’s Epistle apply equally to believing Jews and believing Gentiles. Christ is the Advocate of the one, as much as of the other. The same may be said of many things in the Epistle of James which is also a catholic, or general epistle, though expressly addressed to the twelve tribes scattered abroad.”
Looking for a Calvinist Christmas present? This would be what I’d want!
The first point that is argued for Calvinism is total depravity. Total depravity is a major foundation for soteriology. Its definition is being capable of nothing but sin and is completely dead spiritually. This started when Adam ate of the tree in the Garden and brought spiritual death upon all humanity. Everyone born into the world is sinful. “Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.” Psalm 51:5. And throughout the entire scriptures the idea of total depravity is taught. Passages like Gen. 2:16-17; Rom. 5:12; Eph. 2:1-3; Col. 2:13; Ps. 51:5; Ps. 58:3; Gen. 6:5; Gen. 8:21; Rom. 8:7-8; John 8:34,44; Rom. 6:20; 2 Chron. 6:36; Ps. 143:2; Prov. 20:9; Jer. 13:23; John 6:65. But total depravity is clearly seen in Romans 5:6-21. After reading that passage you cannot tell me that a person is not totally depraved. With words like helpless, condemnation to all, transgression, and sinful there is no other interpretation other than that man is utterly depraved and helpless apart from God. “I am bound to the doctrine of the depravity of the human heart, because I find myself depraved in heart, and have daily proofs that in my flesh there dwelleth no good thing.” Spurgeon
Next in the argument for Calvinism is limited atonement (not unconditional election as is taught in the acrostic TULIP because this is the order in soteriology). Limited atonement is not that Christ died only for the elect, but that Christ died more for the elect to purchase them and bring them into a new covenant. If you say that Christ’ death did the same thing for all of humanity, than I am no better off spiritually speaking than any other person who is going to hell. There needs to be something extra that his death did for the elect. John 3:16 explains this. “For God so loved the World that he gave his only begotten son, that whosoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.” God loves the world, but only those in the elect (those who have believed) receive eternal life. Once again, if Christ’ death covers everyone’s sin, than everyone is either condemned to hell or heaven.
Thirdly, the Calvinist argument states that there is unconditional election. Unconditional election is God choosing the elect before the foundations of the earth. “Just as He chose us in him before the foundation of the world that we would be holy and blameless before Him. In love He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will.” Ephesians 1:4-5. As utterly depraved people, we, as the creation, have no say in what happens to us. Only God can determine that. God could have chosen to send us all to hell or heaven but he did not. He chose to elect a body of believers to fellowship with him in eternity. We, as humans, have no say in our eternal destiny.
This brings us to Irresistible Grace. Irresistible Grace is a work of the Holy Spirit which draws the elect of God to salvation, guaranteeing their response to the gospel. And we, as the creation of God, cannot accept or refuse God’s love or hate. Because of man’s total depravity and God’s unconditional election, it is impossible for us to reject or accept God’s grace. “All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will certainly not cast out” John 6:37. To say that we can accept or reject God’s grace is to say that we have power over the Holy Spirit. And by no means are we, as man, able to over-rule the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit moves wherever it desires and nothing can stand in its way. All the way through history, God has had (and still does) complete control over everything in the universe. To say anything less, especially that a sinful human can over-power God, is to take away from God’s holy character and his complete power over all and give God’s glory to mankind. Total depravity God is all-powerful and there is no way that man could ever resist God’s grace.
The last point of Calvinism is Perseverance of the saints. Perseverance of the saints is simply that a true believer will persevere in faith, no matter what, to the end. Eternal Security Rom. 8:1 – “There is therefore NOW NO CONDEMNATION to those who are in Christ Jesus.” Rom.8:35 – NOTHING can separate the believer from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus. John 10:27-28 – ” And I give unto them eternal life, and they shall NEVER perish.” Eternal life is eternal. This is a gift, unconditional, not to be taken back. Eph. 1:13-14 – “you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, who is the guarantee of our inheritance.” If one is saved, God’s peace will be with him always (John 14:27) and he will be growing in his relationship with Christ. If a person is thought to fall away from the faith, although we cannot judge his heart, one has to wonder if he was really saved. A person who is saved will not love his salvation no matter what.