Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day

1. The light of nature shews that there is a God, who hath lordship and sovereignty over all; is just, good and doth good unto all; and is therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and served, with all the heart and all the soul, and with all the might. But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God, is instituted by himself, and so limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be worshipped according to the imagination and devices of men, nor the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representations, or any other way not prescribed in the Holy Scriptures.  ( Jeremiah 10:7; Mark 12:33; Deuteronomy 12:32; Exodus 20:4-6 )

2. Religious worship is to be given to God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and to him alone; not to angels, saints, or any other creatures; and since the fall, not without a mediator, nor in the mediation of any other but Christ alone.  ( Matthew 4:9, 10; John 6:23; Matthew 28:19; Romans 1:25; Colossians 2:18; Revelation 19:10; John 14:6; 1 Timothy 2:5 )

3. Prayer, with thanksgiving, being one part of natural worship, is by God required of all men. But that it may be accepted, it is to be made in the name of the Son, by the help of the Spirit, according to his will; with understanding, reverence, humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance; and when with others, in a known tongue. ( Psalms 95:1-7; Psalms 65:2; John 14:13, 14; Romans 8:26; 1 John 5:14; 1 Corinthians 14:16, 17 )

4. Prayer is to be made for things lawful, and for all sorts of men living, or that shall live hereafter; but not for the dead, nor for those of whom it may be known that they have sinned the sin unto death. 
( 1 Timothy 2:1, 2; 2 Samuel 7:29; 2 Samuel 12:21-23; 1 John 5:16 )

5. The reading of the Scriptures, preaching, and hearing the Word of God, teaching and admonishing one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in our hearts to the Lord; as also the administration of baptism, and the Lord’s supper, are all parts of religious worship of God, to be performed in obedience to him, with understanding, faith, reverence, and godly fear; moreover, solemn humiliation, with fastings, and thanksgivings, upon special occasions, ought to be used in an holy and religious manner. ( 1 Timothy 4:13; 2 Timothy 4:2; Luke 8:18; Colossians 3:16; Ephesians 5:19; Matthew 28:19, 20; 1 Corinthians 11:26; Esther 4:16; Joel 2:12; Exodus 15:1-19, Psalms 107 )

6. Neither prayer nor any other part of religious worship, is now under the gospel, tied unto, or made more acceptable by any place in which it is performed, or towards which it is directed; but God is to be worshipped everywhere in spirit and in truth; as in private families daily, and in secret each one by himself; so more solemnly in the public assemblies, which are not carelessly nor wilfully to be neglected or forsaken, when God by his word or providence calleth thereunto. ( John 4:21; Malachi 1:11; 1 Timothy 2:8; Acts 10:2; Matthew 6:11; Psalms 55:17; Matthew 6:6; Hebrews 10:25; Acts 2:42 )

7. As it is the law of nature, that in general a proportion of time, by God’s appointment, be set apart for the worship of God, so by his Word, in a positive moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men, in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a sabbath to be kept holy unto him, which from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ was the last day of the week, and from the resurrection of Christ was changed into the first day of the week, which is called the Lord’s day: and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath, the observation of the last day of the week being abolished. ( Exodus 20:8; 1 Corinthians 16:1, 2; Acts 20:7; Revelation 1:10 )

8. The sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering their common affairs aforehand, do not only observe an holy rest all day, from their own works, words and thoughts, about their worldly employment and recreations, but are also taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy. ( Isaiah 58:13; Nehemiah 13:15-22; Matthew 12:1-13 )

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English Baptist & Two-Kingdom Theology

Were English-Baptist Two-Kingdom? I think not…

Chapter 24 of the Civil Magistrate Section 2 reads,

It is LAWFUL for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate when called there unto; in the management whereof, as they ought especially to maintain justice and peace, according to the wholesome laws of EACH kingdom and commonwealth, so for that end they may lawfully now, under the New Testament wage war upon just and necessary occasions.”

Not only did they see being called into civil office lawful, but they saw fit for those called out of this kingdom, to yet serve in this kingdom in the civil government.


Disagreements with the WCF

Recently I had to sit down and write the differences I saw between The London Baptist Confession and The Westminster Confession of Faith. I figured that I would go ahead and post it as well for others to read as well.

Disagreements with The Westminster Confession of Faith

My wife and I am Confessional Baptist, like that of Confessional Presbyterians (The Westminster Confession of Faith and Larger & Shorter Catechisms) or Confessional Dutch-Reformed (The Three-Forms of Unity). There are not many differences between us at all, besides three areas: Church Sacraments, Church Magistrate, and Church Polity (which is not an confessional issue). The five Baptist confessions we adhere to are the following:

  • 1644 London Baptist Confession of Faith
  • 1698 London Baptist Confession of Faith
  • 1742 Philadelphia Confession of Faith
  • 1833 New Hampshire Baptist Confession of Faith
  • 1858 Abstract of Principles

There are a few differences within these confessions, like that from The Westminster Confession of Faith to the Three-Forms of Unity, they are both reformed, but yet have small differences within them. My wife and I agree mostly with that of the 1644 London Baptist Confession, 1833 New Hampshire Baptist Confession of Faith, and the 1858 Southern Baptist Abstract of Principles. I feel the need at this time to make it known that all three of these (nor any of the Baptist Confessions) is not Dispensational in any means. Due to American Baptist history within the last 150-years, not one of these have Dispensational roots, nor leanings.

Sacraments

Baptism – It is most obvious that we disagree upon the Westminster Confession of Faith chapters 28 and 29, from that of the London Baptist Confession chapters 29, and 30. The London Baptist Confession although short in explanation compared to the Westminster, is what I believe and hold to be true.

Lord’s Supper – The Westminster Confession of Faith chapter 29 and the London Baptist Confession chapters 30 and 32, I see that they agree and I have no difference here. I do believe that the Westminster Confession of Faith has done a better job and see that it is more in-depth in explaining.

Church Magistrate – I do not agree with the original Westminster Confession of Faith, I do agree with the American Version of the WCF chapter 23 and the London Baptist Confession Chapter 24.

Church Polity – Unlike the Westminster Confession of Faith chapters 30 and 31, The London Baptist Confession of Faith has left it open to individual congregational church to determine the censures, synods, and councils to the churches belief of the Scriptures. Thus however is much debated in the American modifications that are made to the Reformed Confessions today, namely the American Presbyterian churches (PCUSA, PCA, OPC, ARP) and American-Dutch-Reformed churches (RCA, CRC, URC, FRCNA, HNRC, NHRC, PRC). I give examples below.

  • American Presbyterian – Scotland Presbyterian State Free Church
  • American Dutch-Reformed  – Netherlands State Church

There may be some minor differences between Presbyterian and Congregational Church polity, however I do not see that major, or an issue that would be brought up in teaching Bible at Chamberlain-Hunt. The differences here lie in how the church is govern, mainly in church discipline, meaning that I believe the church denomination/association does not exercise control over the member but the individual church in which one is a member of, better known as an Congregationalist, (like that of Robert Brown, Jeremiah Burroughs, John Owen, John Bunyan, and the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay Colony). The main difference is that Congregationalist churches are to remain completely independent in principle, but yet I do believe it is best for Congregational churches to invite members of the associative churches to ordain their called pastor.

I do not see this being an issue being that I have been a member of an Orthodox Presbyterian Church for over a year. I have submitted to their church order and never once publically, nor in secret went against their church order and law. I have taught in the OPC for the past year in theology classes and in Sunday-school classes and would never once go against the Westminster Confession of Faith. The reason why, is that I would never for the sake of the Gospel and being Christ-centered make this minor issue an importance. The gospel and the center of it are far superior to that of minor issues like that of church polity and the magistrate.

Differences in Confessions

The application asks that I make mention/list of the differences in areas that I disagree upon and to explain why on a separate sheet of paper. Below are the minor exceptions that I disagree or issues on which I have not yet formed an opinion or conviction upon dealing with The Westminster Confession of Faith. I have taken the time over the past week to sit down and read through the Westminster Confession and Baptist Confessions, so that I can properly explain the minor differences. The differences that a confessional Baptist, like myself has from that of the Westminster Confession of Faith are the following.

Chapter 6: Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof: The London Baptist Confession has added wordage to this section, not to disagree, but yet better explain the fall of mankind and the punishment to come. Although the London Baptist does not include the Westminster 6.6, I do however fully agree when it states,

Every sin, both original and actual, being a transgression of the righteous law of God, and contrary thereunto, doth in its own nature bring guilt upon the sinner, whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God, and curse of the law, and so made subject to death, with all miseries, spiritual, temporal and eternal.”

Chapter 7 Of God’s Covenant (with man): The London Baptist has lessen in confession the “covenant of works” and how the covenant of grace is set forth in Scripture. I am in fully agreement in how the Westminster Confession of Faith has described the covenant with mankind through its history in particular with 7.2-7.6.

Chapter 8 Of Christ the Mediator: The Westminster’s most beautiful chapter by far. Yet I believe the London Baptist Confession has done an addition in adding 8:9 and 8:10, that it brings addition in saying how the office of Jesus Christ may not be given to any other (8.9) and in how man’s ignorance, mankind stands in need of a mediator (8.10).

Chapter 17 Of the Perseverance of the Saints: I believe that the London Baptist Confession has done a great addition to explain in how the believer is brought through and from this world, being kept by God, where they will keep their inheritance and being engrave upon the palm of His hands (LBC 17:1).

Chapter 20 Of the Gospel and the Extent of Grace Thereof: An addition that was not in the Westminster Confession of Faith, exampling the broken covenant of works, the promise of Christ, and the revelation of Jesus Christ through the work of the Holy Spirit that will effect their conversion to God.

Chapter 21 Of Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience: The Westminster adds a section (21:4) dealing with the Christian liberty that I agree.

Chapter 22 Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day: There are some differences here from the Westminster Confession of Faith from that of the 1644 & 1689 London, Philadelphia, and New Hampshire. However I am in full agreement the Westminster.

Chapter 23 On Singing Praise: The Philadelphia Confession adds a section that sees the importance of singing to worship God as an ordinance of the church. Further more in chapter 23 of The Westminster Confession of Faith dealing with the Civil Magistrate, there is much debate between the original confession, American and London Baptist Confession (20:2-4). I discussed this earlier.

Chapter 24 Of Marriage and Divorce: The London Baptist Confession does not take a stance upon the covenant of marriage being broken. Unlike that of the Westminster Confession of Faith, it does upon the issues of adultery and desertion.[1]

Chapters 26 & 27 Of the Church: I believe the London Baptist has done a great job (addition to the Westminster) in describing the role of the church, in particular with the role of the pastor (28:4-15).

Chapters 28-30 Baptism and the Lord’s Supper: I have discussed this earlier.

Chapter 31 On the Laying on of Hands: The Philadelphia Confession makes additions in addition to explain the ordinance of the laying on of hands to believers in the church. This I am in agreement with, which is not made mention in the Westminster.

Chapters 30 and 31 Of Church Censures and of Synods and Councils: (of the Westminster confession of Faith) I have discussed this earlier.


[1] I did a study during my Th.M. under Dr. James Grier on a biblical theology of Divorce. During that study I came to the conclusion that the covenant of marriage is unbreakable, no matter what the issue may be. I am not set in stone upon this issue, but at this point I do not agree with the Westminster in that a marriage can be broken because of their two reasons, adultery and desertion. This is not a major issue of the gospel.